What is Bladder?
In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. It is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra.
In males, the bladder is superior to the prostate, and separated from the rectum by the rectovesical excavation.
In females, the bladder is separated from the uterus by the vesicouterine excavation.
The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made of smooth muscle fibers arranged in spiral, longitudinal, and circular bundles. When the bladder is stretched, this signals the parasympathetic nervous system to contract the detrusor muscle. This encourages the bladder to expel urine through the urethra.
For the urine to exit the bladder, both the autonomically controlled internal sphincter and the voluntarily controlled external sphincter must be opened. Problems with these muscles can lead to incontinence.
If the amount of urine reaches 100% of the urinary bladder volume, the voluntary sphincter becomes involuntary and the urine will be ejected instantly, although it is possible to "hold yourself" in order to prevent urination. The body cannot afford having the urinary bladder burst.
The urinary bladder usually holds 400–620 mL of urine, but it can hold twice this without rupturing if, for example, the outflow is obstructed.
The desire to urinate usually starts when the bladder reaches around 75% of its working volume. If the subject is distracted the desire can fade and return with more urgency as the bladder continues to fill.
Since the urinary bladder has a transitional epithelium, compared to the intestine mucosa, the urinary bladder does not produce mucus.
The fundus of the urinary bladder is the base of the bladder, formed by the posterior wall. It is lymphatically drained by the external iliac lymph nodes. The peritoneum lies superior to the fundus.
caused by bacteria, are common in human beings regardless of age and sex, but they are easy to treat if diagnosed at the right time. Preventing bladder infection necessitates absolute cleanliness.
The most often recommended preventive measure for bladder infection is the intake of plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Beverages and coffee should be avoided. Raw garlic and parsley, carrots, celery, cranberries, blueberries, gooseberries, oats, and watermelon are food items that can fight bladder infections.
Women are constantly at risk for bladder infection, so always try to maintain personal hygiene by washing the skin around and between the rectum and vagina daily. Urinate regularly when needed. Stress and lack of nutrition lead to improper functioning of the system.
To prevent infections, try to develop the overall immunity of the body. Wash from front to back after bowel movements. Urination after intercourse and enough lubrication during sex help to resist bladder infections.
A glass of cranberry juice daily is an optional method of preventing bladder infection. Intake of vitamin C helps to maintain the acidity of urine, as it reduces the number of harmful bacteria in the urinary tract. Uva-ursi, a shrub that grows in North America is a suitable substitute for antibiotic infection fighters. Be cautious in the use of soap, bubble bath, and shampoo, as they may cause irritation to the bladder. Use of loose, cotton undergarments is recommended to prevent bladder infections.
Special care should be taken to prevent bladder infections in children. Diapers should be changed frequently to prevent the spread of bacteria. Parents should make children aware of personal hygiene. The child should be taught the importance of passing urine regularly.
Constipation is to be avoided for proper functioning of the system. Double voiding is necessary for complete draining of urine from the bladder. Diagnosis of a bladder infection at the proper time can be achieved by a periodic urine culture. Have good food, sanitation, and a tension-free mind to enjoy healthy living.
Disorders of or related to the bladder include:
Overactive bladder, a condition which affects a large number of people.
Bladder sphincter dyssynergia, a condition in which the sufferer cannot coordinate relaxation of the urethra sphincter with the contraction of the bladder muscles.
Hematuria, or presence of blood in the urine, is a reason to seek medical attention without delay, as it is a symptom of bladder cancer as well as bladder and kidney stones.
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